Second Zappian Games
The Second Zappian Games in 1870 took place in the renovated Panathenaic Stadium. This time the preparation and organisation was markedly superior:
- The programme and the rules of the events were announced on time.
- The athletes registered in time and followed a specific training, as a required preparation for the games. Finally, 31 athletes were selected to participate in the games.
- The stadium was renovated, in order to receive the public and the officials.
- The athletes were uniformly dressed: athletic costume and sandals in the color of the skin.
The inauguration of the games was in November 15th, 1870. The public that attended them was 30,000 people, nearly the whole population of Athens. There were nine events: seven events from the ancient Olympic Games and two modern ones. There were both monetary and symbolic prizes. A band played the first Olympic anthem, specially written by G. Orphanides, professor of Botany at the university, and composed by Parizinis, a music teacher. Furthermore, the athletes for the first time took an oath in front of the games committee. The judges were university professors and there was a herald for the announcement of the victors. The king presented the prize to the victor with the accompaniment of music.
The games of 1870 were extremely successful and enthusiastic articles were published in the press regarding both the organization and holding of the games. This success ignited discussions about gymnastics and the need for the creation of state athletic institutions.