After the debacle of the front (end of August 1922), and under the pressure of sweeping developments, the socio-political crisis came to a head.

The last governments of the Popular Party, under Petros Protopapadakis (9 May-28 August) and Nikolaos Triantafyllakos (August-September), proved short-lived and weak in managing events.

By the end of the first week of September the last Greek army unit departed from Asia Minor. In a dramatic climate of uncontrolled violence on the part of Turkish nationalists, the wave of the refugees heading towards Greece acquired alarming proportions.

At the beginning of autumn 1922, there were three major problems pressing the attention of the Greek administration: the reaction of the army after their return from Asia Minor; the relief of the refugee problem; and feeding the population. Confusion and disorientation was common and the intention of a group of officers to overthrow and purge the political life of the country was soon to prove effective.