Sample Sources About Ancient Miletus

Politics, 1305a 15-17: And tyrannies also used to occur in former times more than they do now because important offices were entrusted to certain men, as at Miletus a tyranny arose out of the presidency (for the president had control of many important matters).

Alexander's Anabasis I, 4: Because Hegestratus, appointed by the great king commander of the Miletian garrison, previously sent letters to Alexander to surrender Miletus to him. Yet, he was encouraged by the proximity of the Persian fleet and he thought of keeping the city for the Persians.

Alexander's Anabasis I, 19, 1: When Glaucippus, one of the magistrates of Miletus, was sent to Alexander by the Demus and the foreing mercenaries, who probably controlled the city, he said that the Miletians wished to provide the walls and the harbours of the city both for the Persians and Alexander to use, and demanded that the seige end accordingly.

Alexander's Anabasis I, 19, 4: There, since the Macedons were attacking from everywhere, some Miletians and mercenaries jumped into the sea and swam towards a small island supported on their shields [Φ] yet others were hastily trying to [get away] before the ships of the Macedons arrived, by getting into boats. From those, some were captured in the entrance of the harbour by the ships in the boats and most died in the city.

Alexander's Anabasis I, 19, 5: As to those Miletians who were not killed during their city's occupation, he gave them pardon and allowed their city to be free.

B,1: Anaximander, son of Praxiades, was a Miletian. He considered infinity as the beginning and an element of beings, without specifying whether it was water, air or something else. He believed that the parts change bur the whole remains unchanging. That the earth, being of a spherical shape, is in the middle of the universe, occupying the position of the centre. And that the Moon does not possess light of its own, but is lit by the sun. Also that the sun is not smaller than the earth and is the purest fire.

C. B. Welles, Royal Correspondence in the Hellenistic Period, no. 5, l.1-6: King Seleucus to the council and the people of Miletus, greeting. We have sent to the sanctuary of Didymean Apollo, as offerings to the Saviour Gods, the great lamp-stand and cups of gold and silver bearing inscriptions [Φ]

C. B. Welles, Royal Correspondence in the Hellenistic Period, no. 14, l. 1-14: King Ptolemy to the council and the people of Miletus, greeting. I have in former times shown all zeal in behalf of your city both through a gift of land and through care in all other matters as was proper because I saw that our father was kindly disposed toward the city and was the author of many benefits for yu and had relieved you of harsh and oppressive taxes and tolls which certain of the kings had imposed. Now also, as you guard steadfastly your city and our friendship and alliance-for my son and Callicrates and the other friends who are with you have written me what a demonstration you have made of good-will toward us- we knowing these things praise you highly and shall try to require your people through benefactions, and we summon you for the futer to maintain the same policy of friendship toward us so that in view of your faithfulness we may exercise even more our care for the city.

Whenever Pigiamantou comes, he takes my prisoners and resorts to Millawanta. I asked him to turn back and I wrote to you to complain [Φ]So I went to Millawanta [Φ] I went there, as I was already thinking: "My brother's subjects must also hear what I have to say to Pigiamantou!" But Pigiamantou had fled by boat [Φ] I had sent my army to Millawanta on a friendly mission, just so that I would prevent his supporters to follow him.

1, 146: As for those who came from the very town-hall of Athens and think they are the best born of the Ionians, these did not bring wives with them to their settlements, but married Carian women whose parents they had put to death. For this slaughter, these women made a custom and bound themselves by oath (and enjoined it on their daughters) that no one would sit at table with her husband or call him by his name, because the men had married them after slaying their fathers and husbands and sons. This happened at Miletus.

1, 17-19: [Alyattes] continued the war against the Milesians which his father had begun. This was how he attacked and beseiged Miletus: he sent his army, marching to the sound of pipes and harps and bass and treble flutes, to invade when the crops in the land were ripe; and whenever he came to the Milesian territory, he neither demolished nor burnt nor tore the doors off the country dwellings, but let them stand unharmed; but he destroyed the trees and the crops of the land, and so returned to where he came from; for as the Milesians had command of the sea, it was of no use for his army to besiege their city. [Φ] For the following five [years] the war was waged by Sadyattes' son Alyattes. None of the Ionians helped to lighten this war for the Milesians, except the Chians. [Φ] In the twelfth year, when the Lydian army was burning the crops, the fire set in the crops, blown by a strong wind, caught the temple of Athena called Athena of Assesos, and the temple burned to the ground. For the present no notice was taken of this. But after the army had returned to Sardis, Alyattes fell ill; and, as his sickness lasted longer than it should, he sent to Delphi to inquire of the oracle, either at someone's urging or by his own wish to question the god about his sickness. But when the messengers came to Delphi, the Pythian priestess would not answer them before they restored the temple of Athena at Assesos in the Milesian territory, which they had burnt.

1, 21-22: Then, when the Delphic reply was brought to Alyattes, he promptly sent a herald to Miletus, offering to make a truce with Thrasybulus and the Milesians during his rebuilding of the temple. So the envoy went to Miletus. But Thrasybulus brought together into the marketplace all the food in the city, from private stores and his own, and told the men of Miletus all to drink and celebrate together when he gave the word. Thrasybulus did this so that when the herald from Sardis saw a great heap of food piled up, and the citizens celebrating, he would bring word of it to Alyattes: and so it happened. The herald saw all this, gave Thrasybulus the message he had been instructed by the Lydian to deliver, and returned to Sardis; and this, as I learn, was the sole reason for the reconciliation. For Alyattes had supposed that there was great scarcity in Miletus and that the people were reduced to the last extremity of misery; but now on his herald's return from the town he heard an account contrary to his expectations; so presently the Lydians and Milesians ended the war and agreed to be friends and allies, and Alyattes built not one but two temples of Athena at Assesos, and recovered from his illness.

4, 137: But Histiaeus of Miletus [Φ] said, "It is owing to Darius that each of us is sovereign of his city; if Darius' power is overthrown, we shall no longer be able to rule, I Miletus or any of you elsewhere; for all the cities will choose democracy rather than despotism.

5, 28-29: After only a short period of time without evils, trouble began once more to come on the Ionians, and this from Naxos and Miletus. Naxos surpassed all the other islands in prosperity, and at about the same time (ca 510 BC) Miletus, at the height of her fortunes, was the glory of Ionia. Two generations before this, however, she had been very greatly troubled by factional strife, till the Parians, chosen out of all the Greeks by the Milesians for this purpose, made peace among them.

8, 17: The first alliance between the king and the Lacedaemonians was now concluded immediately upon the revolt of the Milesians, by Tissaphernes and Chalcideus, and was as follows: Whatever country or cities the king has, or the king's ancestors had, shall be the king's [Φ] The war with the Athenians shall be carried on jointly by the king and by the Lacedaemonians and their allies; and it shall not be lawful to make peace with the Athenians except both agree, the king on his side and the Lacedaemonians and their allies on theirs.

Iliad ¬, 867-869: And Nastes again led the Carians, uncouth of speech, who held Miletus and the mountain of Phthires, dense with its leafage, and the streams of Maeander, and the steep, crests of Mycale.

Achaic 2, 4-5: [Φ] Neleus, with his own group headed towards Miletus. Miletians themselves report their more ancient history as follows: the land was called Anactoria for two generations. Then the native Anax and after him Asterius, the son of Anax, were kings. When Miletus sailed there with a Cretan force, the land, as well as the city, took on their new name after Miletus. Miletus and his army came from Creta driven out by Minos, son of Europe. The Cares, who ruled over the land previously, remained as fellow inhabitants of the Cretans.

Lysander, 8: For when his friends and allies, whom he [Lysander] had promised to aid in overthrowing the democracy and expelling their opponents, changed their minds and became reconciled to their foes, openly he pretended to be pleased and to join in the reconciliation; but in secret he reviled and abused them, and incited them to fresh attacks upon the multitude. And when he perceived that the uprising was begun, he quickly came up and entered the city, where he angrily rebuked the first conspirators whom he met, and set upon them roughly, as though he were going to punish them, but ordered the rest of the people to be of good cheer and to fear no further evil now that he was with them. But in this he was playing a shifty part, wishing the leading men of the popular party not to fly, but to remain in the city and be slain. And this was what actually happened; for all who put their trust in him were slaughtered.

Verro, II, 89:(Contribution of the Miletians to the fight against piracy).
Under the orders of Lucius Murena, the city of Miletus built ten ships, as part of the Roman tax.






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The Council House of Miletus and the Sanctuary of Apollo Delphinios



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