When Kapodistrias landed on Nauplion at the beginning of 1828 the country was in ruins. The Peloponnese, whose public income was based largely on its agricultural production, was almost destroyed by the seven-year war and the civil conflict. In particular, Ibrahim's army had initiated such destruction in 1825-1828 that all productive bases were destroyed. The ruins of demolished houses were a common sight in the towns and villages and the need for building was urgent now that the war was over, at least in the Peloponnese. In addition, money from external loans (1824 and 1825) had not been distributed and governmental funds did not suffice even for indispensable state expenses.

Before this situation Kapodistrias tried to ensure a loan of 60,000,000 francs from the French government. With this money he aimed to reorganize the state administration and introduce a programme of economic reform. But the loan was never granted and Kapodistrias was obliged to use small amounts of money which were provided on a monthly basis by Russia and France between 1828 and 1830. This money sufficed for the fundamental running of the state machine and at least paid state officials and soldiers - a basic condition for the establishment of a powerful, effective government. In addition, the bases of a modern financial policy were institued for the first time in Greece. One aspect of this was the circulation of the first Greek money, in 1829, the Phoenix, the forgotten symbol of the Philiki Etaireia. In the same year the National Exchange Bank was founded. Money from the Greek state but also from Greeks living abroad was invested in this bank at a relatively favourable rate of interest. The venture was not successful because of the opposition of the wealthy families to the Kapodistrian government and also because of the lack of trust in the new institution. Kapodistras also set great store on the development of trade and navigation, to which the battle against piracy in the Aegean contributed greatly.

Another sector that saw the application of Kapodistrian economic policy was agriculture. The restructuring of this primary sector and the gradual recovery that brought it back to pre-revolutionary production levels was sorely needed. For this purpose an attempt was made to improve the quality and yield of the crops, with the introduction of new species (for example the potato) and the use of new agricultural methods and tools. The first steps towards agricultural education were made with the foundation of the Agricultural Model Farm at Tiryns. However, Kapodistrias' ambitious programme was not very effective because of the lack of the basic resources to support it. Finally, as far as the case of the distribution of the National Land is concerned, there was no change, as the land had already been mortgaged to obtain external loans. This matter was a permanent subject of discussion and a source of political conflict and tension for many decades after the foundation of the Greek state, until the Agricultural Reform of Alexandros Koumoundouros in 1871.