The organization of settlements and the architectural structure of houses differed according to regions and periods and reflected environmental, economic and social changes taking place during the long Neolithic Period (6800-3200 BC). Building materials consisted of thick timber posts, reeds, clay (hayclay or mud-bricks) and stone for the foundations and the upper structure (walls), while for roofing, tree trunks, reeds, clay and hay were used.


Sites of the Early Neolithic were to be found on the coasts and the hinterland of the Greek mainland and the Ionian and Aegean Islands, in the lowlands and hilly regions, especially in rivers, streams and springs. Nevertheless, archaeological remains from the Pre-Pottery, Early and Middle Neolithic are scarce in the Cyclades, despite the evidence that navigation took place in the Aegean, and the extraction of obsidian as early as from the Mesolithic Period. The settlements of Pre-Pottery Neolithic consisted of subterranean huts (partly dug in the ground), such as those surviving at Argissa, Dendra and Knossos. During the Early Neolithic settlements consisted of one-room huts with walls made of posts, and were built independently of each other (Nea Nikomedeia). Neighbouring dwellings, during the early phases of the Neolithic, made use of hearths and ovens situated in the open spaces for common use in between the houses (Achilleio).

During the Middle Neolithic the construction of timber-post framed houses continued (Nea Makri), while for the first time houses with stone foundations and walls of mud-bricks (unfired bricks from a mixture of clay and hay) were built. The massive appearance of clay house models was a deliberate marker of this new technological and social event. Houses were rectangular, with one-room or possessed an open or closed porch (megaron-type). They were built independently of each other, on the ground floor as a rule, while there are indications that two-storey dwellings (Sesklo) also existed. The "Tsangli type" houses (three examples in the settlement of Tsangli) with two interior buttresses, that is projecting walls, on each side, and with a row of posts in the middle of the square space, stand out in the architecture of the Middle Neolithic. Buttresses supported the roofing of the house and also facilitated food-preparation, storage, sleep etc.

During the Late Neolithic a considerable increase in the number of settlements in the plains has been observed, which resulted in a population increase and an intensification in cultivation. Large rectangular megaroid buildings were used (Sesklo, Magoula Visviki), while food-preparation facilities were by now situated in the house interior as a rule. Many settlements were surrounded by ditches 4-6 metres wide and 1,5-3,5 metres deep (e.g. Otzaki, Galini, Makriyialos) or stone enclosures 1,5-1,7 metres high (Sesklo, Dimini). The function of the enclosures is questionable: was it to defend against wild animals or to demarcate the limits of the settlement and thus protect its goods?

During the Final Neolithic the coastal zones were densely inhabited, and coastal caves in particular, as well as the islands, while in the lowlands certain settlements seem to have acquired a special economic importance. Settlements were often surrounded by ditches (Dimini), while in architecture apsidal builidngs were used for the first time (Rachmani).